Food Security and Aglicature in the Middle East

Melepas Jeratan Impor Pangan, Belajar dari UEA - Ekonomi

Despite the fact that the Middle East is blessed with a geological heritage rich in hydrocarbons and mineral resources, it is a water-scarce and arid region that has demographic and socio-economic problems. It is difficult to grow food crops in the Middle East due to scarcity of water supply and limited availability of arable land. The region is particularly vulnerable to fluctuations in international commodity markets due to its high dependence on imported grains and foodstuffs.

According to a report released in 2021 by the World Bank, the Food and Agriculture slot365 deposit gopay Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development, “Arab countries are the world’s largest importers of cereals. Most import at least 50% of the food calories they consume.”

Countries like Egypt, Syria, Lebanon , or Iraq used to be food barns in the past, but their agricultural sectors have suffered a lot from government mismanagement, price ceilings and underinvestment. In fact, all Arab countries are grain importers, with smaller GCC countries such as Bahrain, Qatar, UAE, Kuwait and Oman almost completely dependent on grain imports.

Middle East Food Security Threats

Saudi Gelontorkan 78,8 Juta Dolar AS Impor Bahan Makanan | Republika Online

Middle Eastern countries are facing price spikes on world food markets. This is due to competition for the same food products (wheat, corn, soy, animal protein, etc.) from other regions of the world, especially Asia, where incomes are rising and demand for more and better calories is exploding. In addition to threatening the well-being of those already living with few resources, rising prices have increased the number of millions of people stricken with slot depo gopay poverty in less affluent Middle Eastern countries.

To exacerbate food supply problems, world markets have suffered severe disruptions in recent years from distant storms, floods and droughts — from Russia to Argentina to Australia. This natural phenomenon has disrupted the global market mechanism that underlies international food trade. Prices of basic foodstuffs are already at socially dangerous levels, approaching or exceeding their 2010 peak

Of all the Middle Eastern countries facing a food crisis today, Yemen is in the worst condition. The United Nations World Food Program report states that seven million of Yemen’s 21 million people are “very hungry”, making Yemen the 11th most insecure food country in the world.

Aquifers are pumped far beyond the rate of replenishment, and deeper fossil aquifers are also rapidly depleted. As a result, water levels are falling across Yemen by about 2 meters per year. With the water table falling, grain harvests have shrunk by a third over the past 40 years, while demand continues to rise. As a result, Yemen now imports more than 80 percent of their wheat.

In Saudi Arabia there is very little agriculture without irrigation, which relies almost entirely on fossil aquifers. The unsalted seawater used by Saudi Arabia to meet the growing demand for water in cities – cities is too expensive for irrigation use. Saudi Arabia’s growing food insecurity has led it to buy or lease arable land in a variety of countries, including the world’s hungriest countries Ethiopia and Sudan. In fact, the Saudis plan to produce food for themselves with resources land and water from other countries to meet the growing food demands of its rapidly growing population.

Unfortunately, the shift of agricultural land from subsistence agriculture to export crops has led to more food shortages. By trying to ensure their own food security by acquiring foreign agricultural ownership, rich countries are creating new food shortages in other parts of the world.

increasing pressure on water resources

Due to the reduced flow of the Euphrates and Tigris, the wheat harvests of Iraq and Syria have been hit hard. Given the uncertainty of the future supply of river water, farmers in both countries are drilling and pumping more wells for irrigation. Syria’s grain yields have fallen by a fifth since peaking at around 7 million tonnes in 2001. In Iraq, grain yields have fallen by a quarter since peaking at 4.5 million tonnes in 2002. Jordan, with 6 million people, skates over agricultural thin ice. Forty years ago, it produced slot deposit gopay more than 300,000 tons of grain per year. Currently its production is only 60,000 tons and thus has to import more than 90 percent of its grain.

With rapid population growth and increasing pressure on water resources , governments must act urgently to prevent a looming food crisis. A recent World Bank report found major inefficiencies in many Arab ports and the way Arab countries store wheat compared to other large wheat importers, such as the Netherlands and South Korea. Port facilities, slow customs services, and inefficient transportation from ports to factories have all contributed to the worsening food situation. Countries Arab countries will be big food importers no matter what; therefore they must improve their port and storage facilities and manage import risks.

Nuclear Engineering Supports Middle Eastern Crop Production

Salinization increases the amount of salt in the soil contributing to land degradation, desertification and subsequent food insecurity. In the Middle East, the main obstacle to agricultural development slot365 deposit gopay in arid and semi-arid lands is the limited availability of water, making agricultural production difficult.

To address the dual challenges of soil salinity and water shortages, the IAEA, in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), has supported ten countries in the region facing severe salinization to improve soil, water and crop management practices. using nuclear and isotopic techniques. Five years later, farmers have succeeded in growing crops under saline conditions with significant yields. Guidelines are now available to help countries produce a variety of crops in different types of soil exposed to salt.

Through a program of technical cooperation, and in partnership with FAO, the IAEA trains and works with 60 scientists from Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen, who are now using nuclear and isotopic techniques to increase yields on salt-affected soils. These countries established the Cooperation Agreement for Arab Countries in Asia for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (ARASIA).

“Soil salinity is dynamic and spreads globally in more than 100 countries, and no continent is completely free from it,” said Mohammad Zaman, Soil Scientist and Plant Nutritionist in the FAO/IAEA Joint Nuclear Engineering Division in Food and Agriculture. “However, most Middle Eastern countries are facing severe salinization, and this is projected to increase due to climate change and its consequences: rising sea levels and rising air temperatures. The main challenge in these conditions is the availability of essential nutrients, especially nitrogen, as well as water for plants that are adversely affected by excessive salt in the soil.”

Irrigation with Salty Groundwater Let it Grow

Since the start of the project in 2014, 60 scientists have been trained in various nuclear and isotopic techniques, which play a key role in determining the amount of nitrogen and water required by plants. These include the use of a soil moisture neutron probe to monitor soil moisture levels, and a nitrogen-15 isotope technique that uses stable isotopes to help track how effectively plants respond to, and uptake, fertilizers (see Soil moisture neutron probe and nitrogen -15 isotope technique). The information generated from this technique allows farmers to know the right type and amount of fertilizer and water needed based on the nature of the soil and the type of crop.

With the application of the right type of irrigation water, the physical and chemical conditions of the soil can be improved over time, as the accumulated salts are washed away, allowing more plants to germinate and grow. As a result, farmers in the participating countries have succeeded in growing different crops slot depo gopay and achieving high production volumes. Examples include millet in Lebanon, barley and safflower in Jordan and quinoa in the United Arab Emirates.

Soil salinization in Iraq is mainly due to poor irrigation practices such as the use of salt water and soil compaction, leading to poor drainage. According to the FAO, it is estimated that Iraq loses about 25,000 hectares of agricultural land per year to salinity.

With support from the IAEA and FAO, the plant biomass generated from growing salt-resistant crops is used as animal feed. The amount of area planted has increased, as farmers reclaim the salty land  which they now have with techniques for farming. “Hundreds of farmers have now returned to their lands from north to south of Baghdad,” said Ibrahim Bakri Adbulrazzaq, former director general of the Ministry of Science and Technology’s Agricultural Research Directorate, who led the project in Iraq.

In Syria, scarcity of fresh water, deteriorating water quality and soil salinity are the main limiting factors for agricultural productivity and sustainability of natural resources. “The results generated through this project are invaluable,” said Mussadak Janat, researcher at the Syrian Atomic Energy Commission who is leading the project. “In three years, okra yields averaged over 13 tonnes per hectare, – comparable to what could be achieved in non-salt conditions. The yield of barley exceeds 5 tonnes per hectare and about 4.5 tonnes as dry biomass despite irrigation with saline groundwater, and millet yields over 3.5 tonnes of grain yield”.

Guidelines for producing crops in salt-affected soil

Based on the experience of experts in various countries, Guidelines for Salinity Assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Using Nuclear and Related Techniques have been developed to disseminate knowledge about slot deposit gopay the sustainable use of salt and brackish water, and about salt tolerant trees and plants in arid soils.

“This guide can be used for all types of saline soils, helping farmers in different areas to increase their production,” says Zaman.

The Middle East’s Increasing Role in Global Food Security

Synergies and trade-offs between agriculture adaptation and mitigation  identified

The global food system faces a number of stresses and shocks due to the complex interaction of social, economic, political and environmental factors. With the world population forecast to increase to 10 billion by 2050, policymakers are faced with the problem of securing affordable, nutritious and environmentally friendly food for all.

In addition, the emergence of a global middle class, the threat of climate change, disease outbreaks, and protracted conflicts contribute to greater uncertainty and threats to food supplies.

Food insecurity is slot365 deposit gopay complex for the Middle East, with the region facing a number of threats to stability and progress. Conflicts in many countries disrupt agricultural production, adding to the risk of large-scale famine. In addition, the region has low agricultural yields due to limited arable land, water scarcity, and climate-related shocks.

High levels of food imports, unsustainable diets, food loss and waste, economic shocks, the global food crisis, fluctuating oil prices, and the COVID-19 pandemic all contribute to a depressed food system.

A recent report by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization highlighted food insecurity in the region. According to 2019 data, more than 51.4 million people are hungry, while 137 million do not have regular access to sufficient and nutritious food. Malnutrition is rampant, with about 22 percent of children under five suffering from stunted growth and 9.2 percent with severe weight loss.

More than half of the region’s population cannot afford healthy food, compared to the global average of 38 percent. Meanwhile, obesity in the Arab region is the second highest in the world, affecting 27 percent of the adult population.

Addressing this daunting threat requires a grassroots overhaul of the global food system, as well as collaboration with international actors to bring about the necessary changes. By directing efforts toward shared global priorities, the Middle East can play an influential role in delivering sustainable, affordable, healthy and inclusive food systems for its people.

Formation of an Alliance to Advance the Middle East’s Food Role


Local governments should form strategic alliances with other countries, international institutions, research centers, academic institutions, farmer associations, and private companies to provide investment in priority areas. Projects may include conserving global biodiversity, mitigating climate change measures, investing in agricultural technology solutions, and funding research on agricultural productivity. A dedicated food safety minister should be appointed to spearhead the effort.

Key investments to increase local production are critical to the resilience of the region, in addition to supporting slot depo gopay local farmers and cooperatives. Previous crises and pandemics have shown policymakers the importance of partnering with local farmers to formulate resilience plans.

Many countries provide special loans to encourage farmers to adopt innovative agricultural technologies. In 2020, Saudi Arabia spent $665 million to facilitate food imports and help local farmers increase crop production through the use of hydroponics, which uses 90 percent less water than traditional farming methods.

Advances in agricultural technology pave the way to greater productivity. Last year, the Abu Dhabi Investment Office invested $100 million in four agricultural companies building research facilities and production centers in the emirate. Earlier this year, Dubai launched Food Tech Valley, with research facilities, an innovation hub, a smart food logistics hub and space for vertical farming. As a result of these efforts, the UAE now has 1,000 hydroponic farms, up from just 50 in 2009.

At the same time, it is very important for Arab countries to diversify sources of food imports, simplify customs procedures, establish minimum food storage quantities and establish business continuity plans. Improved supply chain, transport and storage efficiency will reduce food loss from agriculture to retail.

solutions in terms of global food policy

Special pricing policies will ensure lower income groups have more reliable choices when it comes to basic and healthy foods. Policymakers should also consider encouraging consumer behavior towards sustainable and healthy eating through nutrition literacy programs, food labeling, and strategies to reduce waste.

Many countries, especially those that rely heavily on food imports, are adopting new approaches to food security. Singapore  which has long been subject to fluctuating prices due to its 90 percent food import rate working to diversify its sources of imports from 170 countries.

In 2019, the Singapore government announced an ambitious plan to produce 30 percent of its nutritional needs locally by 2030. Indoor slot deposit gopay farming technologies, such as hydroponic and vertical farming, are part of a range of innovative solutions. The government is partnering with German vertical farming company ever to set up a fully automated indoor farm that will produce 500 tons of fresh produce annually.

Last month, Singapore launched a dedicated agricultural technology training facility to teach the basics of crop farming, innovative agricultural technology, agricultural operations, artificial intelligence in agricultural operations and farm management.

The global food system contributes to the well-being and economic prosperity of the peoples of the region, so it is imperative to develop ambitious plans to protect their resilience and sustainability.

Agriculture Sector In United Arab Emirates

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The United Arab Emirates has rapidly developed into a strong and rapidly growing economy. While much of its success has been attributed to oil exports, the country’s other industries, such as agriculture in the UAE, have also grown side by side.

It is important to note that the UAE slot365 deposit gopay has an arid climate characterized by high temperatures, low rainfall, lack of natural waterways and poor soils. However, these challenges have not stopped the country from making significant progress in the agricultural industry.

Keep reading to learn more about the exciting agricultural sector in the UAE.

History Of Agriculture In The UAE

Since its inception, agriculture has been one of the most popular activities of the Emirati people. The main agricultural areas for farmers are Diqdaqah in Ras Al Khaimah, Falaj al Mualla in Umm al Quwain, coastal areas of Fujairah, Wadi adh Dhayd in Sharjah, Al Awir in Dubai and Al Ain and Liwa Oasis in Abu Dhabi.

While obstacles such as scarcity of water resources, severe environmental conditions and soil salinity have affected development, the UAE has found innovative solutions to circumvent these challenges. These solutions have mostly been found in underground aquifers or underground water supplies from mountains.

Agriculture in the UAE is carried out on a total arable area of ​​about 160,000 hectares, most of which is taken up by date palms. Over the years, governments in each slot depo gopay emirate have provided incentives to farmers, in an effort to increase production. For example, farmers in the UAE receive a 50% subsidy for seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, as well as special loans to purchase machinery and equipment.

Today, there are more than 30,000 farms in the UAE, an exponential increase from about 4,000 farms in the early 1970s. The rapid development of agriculture in the UAE was seen during the 1980s, when the country began to use up to 30% of its food needs. In addition to agriculture in Dubai and other emirates, there has also been an increase in fisheries and poultry production, with local dairies meeting 92% of demand in the country.

Which Crop Are Planted In The UAE ?

Manfaat Kurma Ajwa atau Nabi yang Berhasil Tumbuh di Ponorogo

One of the main crops grown in the UAE that you may already be familiar with is the date palm or Phoenix dactylifera. There are millions of date palms in the UAE and the country is responsible for 6% of the world’s date production. The hot climate of the UAE actually supports the growth of dates, which is why they are abundant in the region.

Sustainable Agricultural Growth In UAE

One of the main obstacles faced by the agricultural industry in the UAE is the scarcity of water reserves. While significant efforts have been made to increase the cultivated area in the early years, it has resulted in depletion of underground aquifers, a decrease in the water table and an increase in soil and water salinity.

However, the latest technologies and processes have been adopted to improve agriculture in the UAE, under the patronage of the late HH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, the first President of the UAE. It is also part of his vision to transform the country towards sustainable agricultural practices in the UAE, to ensure the preservation of water resources.

In June 2020, the UAE Cabinet also introduced the National Strategy for Sustainable Agriculture, which aims to increase the level of agricultural efficiency, increase slot deposit gopay self-sufficiency in certain agricultural crops and reduce the use of water for irrigation, among other goals. All these steps are directed towards enhancing the sustainable agriculture sector in the UAE.

Recently, agriculture in UAE has switched to modern irrigation systems to replace traditional flood irrigation, to reduce water consumption. These practices have been adopted by more than half of the farms in the UAE. Organic farming practices have also been adopted as part of sustainable agriculture in the UAE.

Currently, there are more than 50 organic vegetation farms in the UAE, as well as three animal production farms and one manufacturing facility. UAE aims to continue sustainable farming methods to increase sustainable food production; This is because almost 80% of domestic food needs are still met through imports. It also aims to ensure that ecosystems are not harmed as the state increases production.

Agricultural Technology In The Middle East

France to financially support Palestinian agriculture in Area C – Middle  East Monitor

There is a clear truth that there is a significant gap between the amount of agricultural goods produced and the global demand for food. By 2050, the world’s population is expected to reach 10 billion, and to meet the pace of demand, annual cereal production will need to be increased to 3 billion tons, up from the 2.1 billion tons produced today .

While agriculture in the Middle East represents only 13% of the region’s GDP , it plays a strategically important role in promoting resilient food systems slot365 deposit gopay, keeping important economic sectors alive, and forming the basis of many economies. Of the region’s total population of 296 million people, 84 million, or 28%, are entirely dependent on agriculture.

Historically, agriculture has long been the center of social and economic life in the Middle East, with diets dependent on the production of cereals and livestock, and later, fruit and vegetables produced on carefully irrigated land.

With its generally drier climate and more limited water resources, necessity has pushed the region into a center for ancient and contemporary agricultural innovation, from irrigation practices to fertilizers.

However, scarce arable land and continued water supplies are proving to be increasingly detrimental to regional food production, making many countries highly dependent on imported agricultural products and, therefore, highly vulnerable to fluctuations in international commodity markets.

Climate change, food trade imbalance

Around the world, weather and desertification patterns are becoming increasingly irregular. Nearly two-thirds of the Middle East’s population lives in areas that lack sufficient renewable water resources to sustain crop production. On average, 83% of water use in MENA is used for agriculture, as opposed to only 4% for industrial purposes .

The region’s high urbanization rate, which stands at 70% today , and an estimated population to increase to 329 million by 2050 make it highly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change.

Malthus’ premise of population growth leading to inevitable scarcity and suffering helps explain the decline in agricultural productivity, but is limited in its ability to explain or propose solutions to problems at hand, regionally or globally.

In the Middle East, disproportionate consumption patterns have played a major role in promoting food insecurity. Indeed, countries in the region are the largest importers of cereals in the world today and import at least 50% of the food calories they consume .

The ongoing dynamics of climate change have further intensified the global food trade imbalance and disproportionately affected food insecure slot depo gopay and import-reliant regions such as the Middle East.

In such a context, the possibility of accommodating increased agricultural demand with existing agricultural practices would result in more intense competition for natural resources, increase gas emissions, and lead to further land degradation. The case of Iran is instructive: Currently, about half of the agricultural land

Iran is on “poor quality” land, which has led farmers to invest in unsustainable groundwater pumping systems, increasing soil salinity and jeopardizing renewable water resources. Short term fixes for what are systemic problems are unlikely to be effective in the long term.

However, in a region that has been at the forefront of recent technological developments, a new trend has emerged that may promise a solution to the problem of food scarcity.

Over the past decade, new technologies have been developed to address longstanding agricultural structural problems associated with unproductive agricultural land and water shortages. Such initiatives have the potential to play an important role in promoting the resilience of food systems across the region.

The technology is designed to increase and increase the output of the agricultural sector, while using less energy and more sustainable methods.

Responding to the need to promote sustainable agricultural growth, current agricultural technology (or “agritech”) aims to reduce agrarian waste and use of chemical fertilizers. Looking to the future while taking cues from the past could open a solution to the region’s desperate food insecurity.

A range of technologies developed at different scales

This development is part of agrarian developments since the last hundred years to increase agricultural productivity and is thus part of the agritech model. Over the past decade, the region has witnessed a fledgling agritech start-up scene, leveraging technologies such as data analytics, internet of things (IoT), and artificial intelligence (AI).

Sustainable agriculture is promoted on two different scales across the region. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries are at the forefront of the “large-scale” agritech movement through collaborative partnerships slot deposit gopay between startups, private businesses and governments.

The UAE has made the most significant investment in this area to date, with the Abu Dhabi Investment Office (ADIO) investing no less than $100 million in agritech companies within the context of the National Food Security Strategy. Indeed, exploring agritech solutions is particularly relevant for GCC countries, which are particularly vulnerable to water scarcity and accelerated desertification.

For the Gulf states, agritech succeeded in a series of failed strategies aimed at increasing the production of agricultural staples at great cost. In the early 1970s, Saudi Arabia, for example, initiated large water irrigation subsidies to increase wheat production, a substantial cost the arid country could no longer afford in 2008 .

Another aspect of the GCC countries’ agrarian strategies consists of buying arable farmland and pursuing agricultural investments in Africa, to help ensure food supplies. In Zambia, Gulf investors are focusing on direct acquisition of agricultural land, with the aim of producing grains, sugar, nuts and seeds, to increase food security.

In 2016, total non-oil trade between Africa and the UAE was $24 billion, up from $17.5 billion in 2014, driven mainly by increased exports of food production from the African continent to the Emirates.

By promoting innovative farming methods in a sustainable manner, agritech departs from previous efforts to increase food production. As such, it may represent an adequate response to the aforementioned water scarcity challenges in the long term.